Risk Tool

Malaysia is comprised of 13 individual states and three federal territories between two large land areas. Peninsular Malaysia is home to 11 states and two territories, while East Malaysia (also known as Malaysia Borneo), which shares a border with Indonesia, is made up of two large states (Sarawak and Sabah) and one federal territory. Both distinct land areas, however, rank as some of the most biologically diverse regions in the world. Unsurprisingly, Malaysia is one of only 17 countries around the world that is considered “megadiverse” with, at least, 20% of the world’s known animal species. It has a high number of species and many endemic species, particularly in East Malaysia.

WRI attempts to keep the information featured in the Risk Tool's country profiles up to date. However, the legal frameworks and the situation in each country are constantly changing. Please help us maintain the Risk Tool by submitting information about relevant updates to forestlegality [at] wri.org.

Last updated: April 2013

Forest Resources

Resources Overview

Malaysian territory is approximately two thirds forest, but it is also home to many mangroves and peat forests. In 2010, Malaysia’s national forest cover was 20.46 million ha, about 62% of its total land area and up from 56% in 2007. Unfortunately, within a year, Malaysia’s forested areas dropped to nearly 18.5 million ha (56.4% of land area). The primary tree species in Malaysia are from the Dipterocarpaceae family, making Malaysia’s forests appropriately named “dipterocarp forests”. Despite such widespread forest cover, Malaysia’s forests have been devastated by unchecked logging activities. Reportedly, over 80% of Sarawak’s forests and over 60% of Peninsular Malaysia’s forests have been cleared. Today, most of Malaysia’s forested areas are found within its national parks.

 

The main threats to Malaysian forests include: illegal logging, clearing for plantations (namely for oil palm production), and damage from invasive species. Policies are in place to protect forests, but enforcement is poor and illegal harvest and trading continues unchecked. The Malaysian government has introduced measures to increase the country’s forest cover, including the provision of financial incentives to encourage the private sector to invest in new forest plantation development in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak by 2020.


Forest Resources

About Forest Resources

This section provides an overview of the country's forest cover and a list of species found naturally and on plantations.

Forest Management

Management Overview

The National Government is responsible for trade policies associated with forest products and it provides technical advice about forestry issues to states via the National Land (Forestry) Council. The main federal body in charge of forest policy is the Department of the Environment within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Thirteen Malaysian states have jurisdiction over their lands, forests, fishery, agriculture, and water resources, including the power to decide (by its own forestry department) on the administration, management, use and allocation of its forest resources. Therefore, to ensure product legality, all timber and wood-product production must comply with both levels of government policy.

 

One element of legal compliance for the forestry sector is that all logging operations in areas greater than 500 hectares, in addition to pulp and paper mills producing more than 50 tons per day, must complete an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to operate. In addition, forest management in Malaysia also requires sustainable forest management plans for each concession or harvest area, and will be regulated by an area control and volume method.


Transparency

According to Transparency International’s 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures perceived levels of public sector corruption in countries around the world using a score of 0-100 (where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is completely clean). Malaysia is ranked 53rd out of 177 countries assessed. It has scored a corruption index of 50, meaning it has an average perception of corruption. Malaysia has performed consistently poorly on Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index, although there is hope of improvement with recent political reforms. Forestry has been one of the most affected sectors by corruption with illegal logging and cross-border trade accounting being a major driver for deforestation in the country.

The World Bank compiles a set of Worldwide Governance Indicators for all world economies. These indicators are important barometer in terms of risk assessment. The WGI country reports are based on the six following aggregate governance indicators: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. Countries are ranked (percentile rank model) for each of the six governance indicators on a scale from 0 to 100 where 0 corresponds to lowest rank and 100 corresponds to highest rank (better governance). 

Transparency International’s work in Malaysia is focused on the forest products industry, including Forest Anti-corruption Solutions, Advocacy & Forest Governance Analysis, Anti-Corruption Advocacy, and Forest Monitoring.

Last year, when it was clear the Malaysian VPA would not be ready by the time EUTR went into effect, the Malaysian Government created an alternative so Malaysian exports to the EU would not be disrupted. Now, exporters in Malaysia wishing to ship goods to the EU can provide evidence that their wood products were legally processed to their EU importers in order to satisfy the new EUTR due diligence demands. Known as the Malaysian Timber Legality Assurance System (MYTLAS), this plan is intended to build the credibility of the Malaysian domestic system by having a third party annual auditing operator verify the legality and credibility of Malaysian wood products. The MYTLAS is a Malaysian initiative without linkage to the EU FLEGT VPA and is operated by the Malaysia Timber Industry Board (MTIB).

Transparency International 

Transpareny International's I Asia Pacific Chapter 

Malaysian Timber Legality Assurance System (MYTLAS) 


Management Links
Forest Management

About Forest Management

This section provides an overview of the country's forest management, transparency indicators, CITES Agreement information as it applies to the country, and relevant laws and regulations (i.e. forestry laws, processing/manufacturing laws, trade laws, tax laws, and transport laws).

Forest Products

Products Overview

According to a 2012 report, 72.6% of Malaysia’s total forest area is designated production/development forests, whereas only 27.4% are protected areas. The forestry sector in Malaysia comprises four major sub-sectors with regard to wood-based materials and goods. Sawn timber, veneer and panel products (i.e. plywood), moldings and builders’ joinery and carpentry (i.e. doors, windows, etc.), and, lastly, furniture and associated components. The industry is predominantly owned by Malaysian companies and roughly 80-90% of these businesses are small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

Most of the larger operators are based in Eastern Malaysia where mills rely heavily on tropical wood to produce plywood and moldings. More than 45% of Malaysia’s plywood mills and 60% of its molding mills are found in either Sabah or Sarawak, while Peninsular Malaysia produces most of its furniture and furniture components.

A recent amendment to the Promotion of Investment Act of 1986, added new rules to help promote trade in Malaysia’s wood-based products market. Under the law, the government hopes to promote businesses that: (1) design, develop and produce wooden furniture; (2) engineer new wood products (excluding plywood); and (3) use Kenaf-based products such as kenaf particle or fiber, reconstituted panel board (particleboard and MDF) and molded products.

In 2009, Malaysia also launched the National Timber Industry Policy (NATIP). In addition to its forestry laws and policies, NATIP was formulated for the Malaysian timber industry and is to be in effect until year 2020. This policy complements Malaysia’s industry master plan targets and is hoped to provide new directions for the Malaysian timber industry so as to remain sustainable, competitive, and profitable.


Production Status

According to a 2012 report, 72.6% of Malaysia’s total forest area is designated as production/development forests. The forestry sector in Malaysia comprises four major sub-sectors with regard to wood-based materials and goods. These include: (1) sawn timber; (2) veneer and panel products (i.e. plywood); (3) moldings and builders’ joinery and carpentry (i.e. doors, windows, etc.), and (4) furniture and associated components. The industry is predominantly owned by Malaysian companies and roughly 80-90% of these businesses are small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Most of the larger operators are based in Eastern Malaysia where mills rely heavily on tropical wood to produce plywood and moldings. More than 45% of Malaysia’s plywood mills and 60% of its molding mills are found in either Sabah or Sarawak, while Peninsular Malaysia produces most of its furniture and furniture components. Malaysia is a major exporter of tropical timber and processed wood products. These exports account for around 2.8% of total Malaysian exports and generate over $6.5 billion. The global economic crisis has had an impact on Malaysia’s trade, seeing a decline in timber exports of 14.5% between 2009 and 2010. In January 2014 alone, however, Malaysia exported approximately US$530 million timber and wood products. Its two largest sub-sectors - wood products and plywood - generated revenues of over US$186 million and US$130 million respectively. Peninsular Malaysia is currently the country’s leading exporter of moldings and finished furniture products; as a result, with the export of higher value furniture products, Penicular Malaysia produced over US$995 million in timber products sales in January. The State of Sarawak was the leading exporter of logs (175,216 cubic meters) and plywood (192,327 cubic meter) in January as well, helping generate over US$549 million.

Malaysia’s largest export markets are Japan, USA, India, Singapore, and Australia. Japan is consistently the largest importer of Malaysian plywood, regularly importing between 45 - 50% of its supply. Veneer exports are shared mostly by South Korea, Taiwan and Japan, and the United States imports most Malaysian wooden furniture. In January 2014, the United States imported 33% of Malaysia’s wooden furniture, while the runner up - Japan - only imported only 10%. Over the last year, furniture and plywood manufacturing have competed to rank as Malaysia’s most exported product, but they are both the prevailing sub-sector industries operating in Malaysia at this time.

Learn more about the countries leading export species.

 

 

Forest Products

About Forest Products

This section provides an overview of the country's forest production and product trade.

Contacts

Contacts Overview

Malaysia has a number of industry associations, civil society groups (both international and local), and government ministries and departments dealing with forestry, trade, and illegal logging. A partial list follows.

Timber Trade Action Plan (TTAP) has developed a list of governmental, civil society organizations and private organizations providing forestry services including auditing, training and research and financial assistance.


Industry Associations

Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB)

MTIB is a statutory body developed in 1973 by an Act of Parliament to promote and coordinate the overall sustainable development of the Malaysian timber industry while continuing to extend quality services to the public.

Malaysian Timber Council (MTC)

The MTC is an initiative of the Malaysian timber industry dedicated to leading and promoting the development and growth of the Malaysian timber industry.

Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCC)

The MTCC was established to develop and operate the Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS), which provides independent assessments of forest management practices in Malaysia. The MTCS has also been endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) system.

Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation (STIDC)

STIDC aims to plan, coordinate and develop the wood-based industries in Sarawak. The organization of STIDC came about after the FAO conducted a comprehensive study of Sarawak’s forests from 1968-1972.

Sarawak Timber Association

Sarawak Timber Association, has 600 member companies who are involved in all areas of the timber trade and industry. The Association’s goals are to build relationships between industry representatives, and to provide new learning opportunities to members, access to trade events, and dialogues with policy makers, among other things.

 


Civil Society Organizations

WWF-Malaysia

WWF established a national conservation trust in Malaysia in 1972. Also known as Tabung Alam Malaysia, this branch is involved in policy work, environmental education, public awareness and conservation campaigns.

Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)

FRIM is a statutory body created by the Malaysian government and administered by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. It promotes sustainable forest management and the optimal use of forest resources through the knowledge and technology generated from the 5 research arms - the Forestry & Environment Division, the Forestry Biotechnology Division, the Forest Products Division, the Forest Biodiversity Division and the Medicinal Plants Division.

TRAFFIC

TRAFFIC is an international NGO committed to fighting illegal trafficking of flora and fauna. In Malaysia, it is also dedicated to implementing and enforcing the nation’s commitment to CITES.

The Global Environment Centre (GEC)

The GEC was established in 1998 to address environmental issues of global importance, and to support the protection of natural resources to meet local, regional and global needs. To do so, GEC works through strategic partnerships with communities, indigenous peoples and like-minded organizations.

 


About Contacts

This section provides a list of local contacts who can serve as sources of further information, including industry associations, civil society organizations and government ministries.

Laws & Regulations

Forestry Laws

Malaysia is comprised of several individual states and some federal territories spread between two large land areas. Peninsular Malaysia is home to 11 states and two territories, while East Malaysia is made up of two large states (Sarawak and Sabah) and one federal territory. Forest management started in Malaysia as early as the 1900s, and it has since improved and refined the system to incorporate selective and sustainable forest management throughout the country. In accordance with the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, all Malaysian states have jurisdiction over their lands, forests, fishery, agriculture, and water resources, including the power to decide on the administration, management, use and allocation of their forest resources.

While each State has the power to create its own individual forestry rules, there are two key forest policies in Malaysia. The National Forestry Act of 1984 and the National Forestry Policy of 1978, plus all subsequent amendments, are the two primary laws related to forestry activities in Malaysia. These policies are designed to ensure that forest management areas should be protected from illegal harvesting, unauthorized settlement, and other unpermitted activities. In the States, namely Sabah and Sarawak, different laws reflect the need to protect forest management areas from unauthorized activities in different ways. As the largest States and with the greatest forest coverage, being familiar with the laws and policies of Sabah and Sarawak is recommended. In Sabah, the State Forest Policy of 1954 and the Forest Enactment policy of 1968 are the dominant state laws. Similarly, Sarawak’s Statement of Forest Policy of 1954 and the Forests Ordinance of 1954 (namely Chapter 126, Parts II (Forest Reserves) and Part III (Protected Forests)) control operations there.

To review national policies related to forestry activities in Malaysia, visit the Department of Environment’s Legislative Database.

Another useful resource to learn more about Malaysia’s legislative documentation can be found through the GFTN Legislative Guide: Malaysia.

National Forestry Act of 1984 (amended in 1993)

The original Forestry Act of 1984 and itssubsequent amendments are designed to promote uniformity of the forestry laws of the States of Malaysia. It addresses issues related to forestry administration, management, and conservation, plus forest development. It gives Malaysian States the authority to appoint officers responsible for designing forest management and restoration plans, handling annual forest development reports, and managing an annual budget. It also classifies Permanent Forest Estates (PFEs) and sates that any products originating from a PFE or other State land are considered the property of the State Authority, and therefore may only be extracted with a proper license.

National Forest Policy of 1977 (updated in 1992)

Malaysia’s various Forestry Departments around the country are responsible for the management, planning, protection and development of the Permanent Forest Estate (PRE) in accordance with the National Forestry Policy (NFP) and the National Forestry Act (NFA). The primary objective of the Policy is to identify the Permanent Forest Estate strategically located throughout the country in accordance with rational and sustainable land use. The PFE will be managed and classified under four major functions: (1) production forests; (2) protection forests; (3) amenity forests, and (4) research and education forests.

With regard to production forests, the NFP requires that states use production forests within the PFE sustainably in order to ensure forest products for both domestic and international consumption into perpetuity (i.e. sustainably). In addition, the PFE, including production forest areas, are to be managed to maximize social, economic and environmental benefits for the nation and its people in accordance with the principles of sustainable management. To do so, the NFP requires a clear forest use plan for forest development, which should include forest regeneration and rehabilitation operations. The NFP also requires State forestry bodies to promote efficient harvesting and utilization within their production forests to maximize economic benefits and to stimulate the development of appropriate forest industries commensurate with the resource flow, especially in the production of more value-added finished and semi-finished products.

National Policy on Biological Diversity of 1998

Malaysia’s National Policy on Biological Diversity (1998) was approved in order “to conserve Malaysia’s biological diversity and to ensure that its components are utilized in a sustainable manner for the continued progress and socio-economic development of the nation.” Malaysia ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994, which required all ratifying countries to incorporate the Convention into its national policies. The Policy on Biological Diversity includes strategies for the effective management of biological diversity and introduces the idea of a tropical biological research center.

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) System Malaysia is committed to SFM practices. As a result, Malaysia employs the “area control” and/or “volume” method of forest management, which is detailed in each State’s forest management plans. The allocation of annual timber yields is set to balance the production and extraction of timber based on the net area of production forest within the Permanent Reserved Forest. Each state is then required to report their state’s compliance with the annual extraction limit. Review of these numbers is overseen by the National Land Council, which is chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia. Learn more about SFM inSarawak and Sabah.

Other Relevant National Laws in MalaysiaThere are several laws that are directly or indirectly related to the Forestry Act 1984, including:

  • Federal Constitution

  • National Land Code 1965 (Act 56)

  • Criminal Procedure Code (Revised 1999)(Act 593)

  • Penal Code (Revised 1997)(Act 574)

  • Evidence Act 1950 (Act 56)

  • International Trade in Endangered Species Act 2008 (Act 686)

  • Mineral Development Act 1994 (Act 525)

  • Wildlife Conservation Act 2010 (Act 716)

  • Fisheries Act 1985 (Act 317)

  • Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127)

Examples of Applicable State Forestry Laws: Sabah

Like at the national level, Malaysian states also have forestry laws and polices that licensees must abide by in order to harvest from the PFE. For example, here are some important regulations guiding forest management and conservation at the state-level in Sabah. They are designed to be in accordance with existing forest ecosystems, appropriate to the scale and commensurate with the intensity of forest management for the area.

 


Processing/Manufacturing Laws

Licensing Requirements: In order to extract wood from the Permanent Forest Estate, an operator must have a valid license. Under Section 16 of the National Forestry Act 1984, the State Authority can issue licenses for operators to extract forest materials from the PFE of other State Government land. While there are basic requirements for obtaining a license to harvest from the PFE, each State will have different terms and specific requirements. Learn more about the national license policy here.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): EIAs are necessary for timber extraction activities. They must include landscape level considerations, as well as the impacts of on-site processing facilities appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest management. EIAs must be conducted prior to the commencement of forest operations in the PRF for Peninsular Malaysia and in the forest management areas of Sabah and Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, EIAs are conducted in accordance with the Environmental Quality Act 1974, taking into consideration the following: conservation of biological diversity and its associated values, water resources, soils and unique and fragile ecosystems and landscapes, as well as the impacts of on-site processing facilities, if present. In Sabah, for example, the Forest Management Plan and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines for Logging and Forest Clearance Activities of 2002 are both reviewed.

 


Trade Laws

TTAP Legality Checklist - Malaysia (2009): There are a number of national and local laws and regulations, as well as administrative requirements, that must be respected by companies in order to trade in Malaysia. The list is broken down into the laws and regulations three main areas: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak.

Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP): The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a Free Trade Agreement initiative involving several countries, including: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States and Viet Nam. Discussions are still ongoing and likely a long ways from completion, but the TPP is not particularly popular among Malaysians and the government is tepid on certain issues.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Malaysia is a member economy of APEC, joining in 1989. APEC is the premier Asia-Pacific economic forum. Its primary goal is to support sustainable economic growth and prosperity in the region.

CITES: Malaysia acceded to CITES in 1977. There are several plant species, and some trees, that are CITES listed and found in Malaysia. Note that the export of goods made with ramin or karas/gaharu wood are governed by CITES Commercial Regulations under Appendix II.

EU FLEGT-VPA: Malaysia entered into formal VPA negotiations with the EU in January 2007. As of 2014, the negotiation process remains ongoing. An ongoing challenge is that the Malaysian State of Sarawak has chosen not to participate in the discussions, but may later join the Malaysian-EU FLEGT-VPA process.

 


Transport Laws

Sabah Forest Rules 1968

The Sabah 1968 Forest Rules require that any timber or other forest produce that is lawfully cut and subject to royalties to receive the appropriate authorization and documentation before transporting the material. Felled trees must be measured at or near the site of felling, but if that is not possible, operators may send the materials to the nearest checking station (with the applicable temporary transit pass) to get measured, pay fees, and be cleared for further transit. If the shipment is timber, a Government hammer mark indicating that it has been assessed for royalty and other charges to which it may be liable is required before it can move. All timber and any other forest produce measured in the area where it was cut shall will need the Government hammer mark to be validated.

In order to export goods outside of Malaysia, parties must have a valid export license. View MTIB Core System and MTIB Core System Online Services. This requires an applicant to do the following:

1) Open a Cess Deposit Account

  • Must be registered with the Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB)

  • Provide a copy of Timber Exporter (T/E) Registration Certificate, and

  • Deposit minimum payment into cess deposit account

2) Process Export License

  • Pay cess for exports of: logs, sawn wood, plywood, molding, veneer, particleboard, blockboard

  • Submit license application with following documents:

  • Grading summary

  • Kiln dried/Treatment certificate (if any)

  • Quota-coupon by cubic meter (for plywood, veneer, blockboard only)

  • Packing list/ Invoice

  • Approval letter (if applicable)

  • Diagram (for molding only)

 

For more information:

Ministry of Transport

MTIB Timber Export License Guide 


Tax Laws

Forestry Law 1984

The Malaysian Forestry Law contains a section dedicated to royalties and premium requirements for using and extracting resources from the PFE. Section 61 says that a royalty shall be paid to the State Authority with respect to what is taken out of the forest. The rate, is set by the State Authority and must be published. Most tax revenue is collected by the National Government of Malaysia, but state governments are allowed to collect land-related revenue, including timber export duties.

These policies have encouraged state governments to maximize these revenues. In some cases, state taxation has jeopardized the national goal of sustainable forest management. The state exit tax, among others, encourages operators to smuggle wood out of states like Sarawak and Sabah to avoid paying the fee. In Sabah, for example, there are several fees, royalties, taxes, etc., that must be paid to extract forest resources. These include: payment to a community forest cess fund, royalties based on species groupings, fees for an occupational permit, machinery registration fees, rehabilitation funds, performance bond for SFM license agreement, among a few others.

In Sarawak, there are different regulations pertaining to fees and taxes, including those under Forests Ordinance 1954 (Chapter 126, Sections 2 & 5). One deals with forest produce taken under a valid license, while the other pertains to forest produces taken under a valid permit. It also includes a cess payment and a liquidated damages fee.

Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB): Exporters, suppliers, processors, graders and jetty operators must all register with the MTIB, and/or with the forestry departments of the respecting state. The Forestry Department in Sabah is the appropriate body to register with there (Sabah Ordinance of Trading License No.16, 1948). In Sarawak, parties must register with the Timber Industrial Development Corporation (STIDC). Registering with the Company Commission of Malaysia (SSM) is also essential, especially for the MTIB and operators in Sarawak. 


Documents / Legal Texts
Forest Industry in Sabah_Malaysia_1.pdf
CITES Agreement Information

CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement among governments whose purpose is to ensure that international trade in wild animal and plant species does not threaten the survival of these species. A total of 180 countries have agreed to the CITES regulations, which is a legally binding agreement. It is up to each CITES Party to draft its own domestic legislation in order to comply with its CITES obligations.

See current list of member countries here

Malaysia ratified the Convention in 1977. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB) is the Management Authority responsible for the issuance of CITES Export Permits for the export of any Ramin or Karas/Gaharu wood originating from Malaysia. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is the Scientific Authority under CITES. To export either Ramin or Karas wood legally, operators will need to work with these bodies. For the export of Ramin, a CITES export permit application must be made directly to MTIB and NRE, while for Agarwood products/Karas (either woodchip or Agarwood oil), exports are subject to the approval of the quota to the company made in advance. States must apply for export quotas of Agarwood/Karas before applying for the CITES permit. Other operators wanting to import and re-export products made with these materials from these trees will need a similar permit to re-export before these goods reach their final destinations. These are known as the CITES Re-export Certificates for the re-export of Ramin or Karas/Gaharu wood from other countries, and the CITES Import Permit for the import of Ramin/Karas/Gaharu wood.

Aquilaria spp. Aquilaria spp., a variety of timber that can produce Agarwood, a fragrant wood extremely valuable for incense, perfume and traditional medicine, which has led to its overharvesting and subsequent listing as a species in CITES. Malaysia is one of the largest suppliers of Agarwood to the international market where harvesting occurs from wild plants and plantations. A harvesting license is dependent on many conditions including being able to supply the State Forestry Department with Aquilaria seedlings. The CITES listing for Aquilaria spp. applies to all parts and derivatives, except seeds; seedling or tissue cultures obtained in vitro, in solid or liquid media, transported in sterile containers; and cut flowers of artificially propagated plants. Malaysia sets a quota for how much may be exported. In 2014, for wood chips, blocks, and essential oil, Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia were limited to 20,000 kg, while Sarawak was reduced to 5,000 kg.

Ramin (Gonystylus spp.) Ramin is a highly prized and popular tree for use as a decorative timber for furniture and interior designs. Others use it for veneer and plywood production. Deforestation of its natural habitat are the biggest drivers of its decline, and this is due to excessive harvest by illegal logging for international trade. Concerns have been raised regarding that the illegal harvest of Ramin in Indonesia, with illegal trade between Indonesia and Malaysia, is also impacting the Malaysian population. The CITES listing for Ramin applies to all parts and derivatives, except seeds; seedling or tissue cultures obtained in vitro, in solid or liquid media, transported in sterile containers; and cut flowers of artificially propagated plants. There are 19 different Gonystylus species listed in Malaysia, each with a 10,000 cubic meter harvest quota. However, the quotas do not apply to all regions in every instance (i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah or Sarawak).

More information on CITES and Malaysia:

Laws & Regulations

This section provides a list of local contacts who can serve as sources of further information, including industry associations, civil society organizations and government ministries.