Brazilian rosewood (essential oils) Aniba rosaeodora
Also know as: Brazilian rosewood, palo de rosa, bois de rose, pau-rosa
A. rosaeodora is a large evergreen tree that can reach a height of about 30 meters. It is native to the northwestern Amazon basin and is found in the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, and Amapá, as well as Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Suriname, and French Guiana.
The entire tree is fragrant, and the species has historically been the most important source of rosewood oil, used in high-end fragrances. The oil is obtained by cutting down the tree, floating the trunks to a distillery, and steaming the wood. In areas where rosewood trees were easily accessible by river transportation, A. rosaeodora is rare, and it has not regenerated well. Dense natural stands are thought to exist in inaccessible areas, but much of the species’ genetic diversity is likely to have been lost.
A. rosaeodora is on the official Brazilian list of endangered species (Portuguese). It is also listed on Appendix II of CITES. Its IUCN Red List status is “endangered
A. rosaeodora is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to logs, sawn wood, veneer sheets, plywood and essential oil (excluding finished products packaged and ready for retail trade).
Guidance (2010) for U.S.-based importers and re-importers of A. rosaeodora materials and products is available from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service here.